Estrogen replacement therapy among elderly women: results from the 1995 medicare current beneficiary survey


      Research Objectives: To develop population-based estimates of estrogen replacement therapy use rates in 1995 among women over age 65 living in the community; to estimate the impact of socioeconomic and health characteristics on estrogen use. Method: Estimates are based on a large, nationally representative sample of Medicare beneficiaries; detailed self-report data were merged with Medicare claims. Results: Overall, 13.1% of women reported use of estrogen replacement therapy in 1995. Estrogen users were more likely to be white, age 65–74, with private insurance, high income, history of osteoporosis and heart problems, no history of breast cancer, and a patient of gynecologists. Conclusions: Estrogen use was substantially lower among the socioeconomically disadvantaged, controlling for medical history variables, suggesting considerable inequity in access to estrogen replacement therapy treatment.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Women's Health Issues
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Jacobs S
        • Hillard T.C
        Hormone replacement therapy in the aged.
        Drugs Aging. 1996; 8: 193-213
        • Gorsky R.D
        • Koplan J.P
        • Peterson H.B
        • Thaker S.B
        Relative risks and benefits of long-term estrogen replacement therapy.
        Obstet Gynecol. 1994; 83: 161-166
        • Grady D
        • Cummings S.R
        • Pettiti D
        • Rubin S.M
        • Audet A
        Guidelines for counseling postmenopausal women about preventive hormone therapy.
        Ann Intern Med. 1992; 117: 1038-1041
        • American Medical Association
        Essential guide to menopause. Pocket Books, New York1998
        • Bartman B
        • Moy E
        Racial differences in estrogen use among middle-aged and older women.
        Womens Health Issues. 1998; 8: 32-44
        • Brett K.M
        • Madans J.H
        Use of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy.
        Am J Epidemiol. 1997; 145: 536-545
        • Stafford R.S
        • Saglam D
        • Causino N
        • Blumenthal D
        Low rates of hormone replacement therapy in visits to United States primary care physicians.
        Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1997; 177: 381-387
        • Cauley J.A
        • Cummings S.R
        • Black D.M
        • Mascioli S.R
        • Seeley D.G
        Prevalence and determinants of estrogen replacement therapy in elderly women.
        Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1990; 163: 1438-1444
        • Handa V.L
        • Landerman R
        • Hanlon J.T
        • Harris T
        • Cohen H.J
        Do older women use estrogen replacement? Data from the Duke Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly.
        J Am Geriatr Soc. 1996; 44: 1-6
        • Leveille S.G
        • LaCroix A.Z
        • Newton K.M
        • Keenan N.L
        Older women and hormone replacement therapy.
        J Am Geriatr Soc. 1997; 45: 1496-1500
        • Stafford R.S
        • Saglam D
        • Causino N
        • Blumenthal D
        The declining impact of race and insurance on hormone replacement therapy.
        Menopause. 1998; 5: 140-144
        • StataCorp
        Stata Statistical Software. Stata Corporation, College Station, TX1997
        • Groeneveld F.P
        • Bareman F.P
        • Barentsen R
        • Dokter H.J
        • Drogendijk A.C
        • Hoes A.W
        Duration of hormonal replacement therapy in general practice.
        Maturitas. 1998; 29: 125-131
        • Langenberg P
        • Kjerulff K.H
        • Stolley P.D
        Hormone replacement therapy and menopausal symptoms following hysterectomy.
        Am J Epidemiol. 1996; 146: 870-880
        • Crystal S
        • Sambamoorthi U
        • Merzel C
        The diffusion of innovation in AIDS treatment.
        Health Services Res. 1995; 30: 593-614
        • Jahnie K
        • Fieback N
        Postmenopausal estrogen use among African American and white patients at an urban clinic.
        J Womens Health. 1997; 6: 93-101
        • Fendrick A
        • Hirth R
        • Chernew M
        Differences between generalist and specialist physicians regarding helicobacter pylori and peptic ulcer disease.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 1996; 91: 1544-1548
        • Donohue M
        Comparing generalist and specialty care.
        Arch Intern Med. 1998; 158: 1596-1608
        • Markson L.E
        • Cosler L.E
        • Turner B.J
        Implications of generalists’ slow adoption of Zidovudine in clinical practice.
        Arch Intern Med. 1994; 154: 1497-1504
        • Saver B.G
        • Taylor T.R
        • Woods N.F
        • Stevens N.G
        Physician policies on the use of preventive hormone therapy.
        Am J Prevent Med. 1997; 13: 358-365
        • Gabel J
        Ten ways HMOs have changed during the 1990s.
        Health Affairs. 1997; 16: 134-145