Advertisement

Life-Course Mobility in Socioeconomic Position and High Depressive Symptoms Among Young Black Women: The SELF Study

Published:December 30, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.whi.2022.11.010

      Abstract

      Background

      Current literature on the association between mobility in socioeconomic position (SEP) and depression demonstrates mixed findings, with variation in the benefits of upward SEP by racial group and ethnic background. No study has examined life-course SEP mobility and depressive symptoms among Black women in the United States.

      Methods

      Our cohort included 1,612 Black women enrolled in the Study of Environment, Lifestyle and Fibroids between 2010 and 2012 and followed for 5 years. We used data on socioeconomic indicators at childhood and adulthood and used latent class analysis to create a life-course SEP mobility measure (persistently low, downward, upward, and persistently high). Using the 11-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), we assessed high (≥9) versus low depressive symptoms. Multivariable log risk models were used to produce risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

      Results

      Of the participants, 37% had high depressive symptoms. Persistently low (RR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.31–1.86) and downward (RR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.14–1.63) SEP mobility was associated with high depressive symptoms after adjustment for age, adult social support, and marital status. There was evidence of an effect measure modification by adult social support, with a stronger association among those who reported high adult social support compared with low adult social support.

      Conclusions

      These findings suggest directing mental health resources to people experiencing low SEP at any stage in life, especially those with low SEP in adulthood, to aid in the management of depressive symptoms.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Women's Health Issues
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Anglin D.M.
        • Lighty Q.
        • Yang L.H.
        • Greenspoon M.
        • Miles R.J.
        • Slonim T.
        • Brown M.J.
        Discrimination, arrest history, and major depressive disorder in the U.S. Black population.
        Psychiatry Research. 2014; 219: 114-121
        • Assari S.
        Blacks’ diminished return of education attainment on subjective health; Mediating effect of income.
        Brain Sciences. 2018; 8: 176
        • Assari S.
        Race, depression, and financial distress in a nationally representative sample of American adults.
        Brain Sciences. 2019; 9: 29
        • Bailey R.K.
        • Mokonogho J.
        • Kumar A.
        Racial and ethnic differences in depression: Current perspectives.
        Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. 2019; 15: 603-609
        • Baird D.D.
        • Harmon Q.E.
        • Upson K.
        • Moore K.R.
        • Barker-Cummings C.
        • Baker S.
        • Wegienka G.
        A prospective, ultrasound-based study to evaluate risk factors for uterine fibroid incidence and growth: Methods and results of recruitment.
        Journal of Women’s Health. 2015; 24: 907-915
        • Brody D.J.
        • Pratt L.A.
        • Hughes J.P.
        Prevalence of depression among adults aged 20 and over: United States, 2013-2016.
        NCHS Data Brief. 2018; 303: 1-8
        • Budhwani H.
        • Hearld K.R.
        • Chavez-Yenter D.
        Depression in racial and ethnic minorities: The impact of nativity and discrimination.
        Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities. 2015; 2: 34-42
        • Christie-Mizell C.A.
        • Talbert R.D.
        • Hope A.R.
        • Frazier C.G.
        • Hearne B.N.
        Depression and african americans in the first decade of midlife: The consequences of social roles and gender.
        Journal of the National Medical Association. 2019; 111: 285-295
        • Colen C.G.
        • Krueger P.M.
        • Boettner B.L.
        Do rising tides lift all boats? Racial disparities in health across the lifecourse among middle-class African-Americans and Whites.
        SSM - Population Health. 2018; 6: 125-135
        • Colen C.G.
        • Ramey D.M.
        • Cooksey E.C.
        • Williams D.R.
        Racial disparities in health among nonpoor African Americans and Hispanics: The role of acute and chronic discrimination.
        Social Science & Medicine. 2018; 199: 167-180
        • Curry Owens T.
        • Jackson F.M.
        Examining life-course socioeconomic position, contextualized stress, and depression among well-educated African-American pregnant women.
        Women’s Health Issues. 2015; 25: 382-389
      1. Detroit has half the median income, three times the poverty rate of nation, new Census numbers show - mlive.com (K. Aihajal, Trans.).
        (Available:)
        • Ghafoori B.
        • Barragan B.
        • Tohidian N.
        • Palinkas L.
        Racial and ethnic differences in symptom severity of PTSD, GAD, and depression in trauma-exposed, urban, treatment-seeking adults.
        Journal of Traumatic Stress. 2012; 25: 106-110
        • Hudson D.L.
        • Neighbors H.W.
        • Geronimus A.T.
        • Jackson J.S.
        The relationship between socioeconomic position and depression among a US nationally representative sample of African Americans.
        Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 2012; 47: 373-381
        • Hudson D.L.
        • Neighbors H.W.
        • Geronimus A.T.
        • Jackson J.S.
        Racial discrimination, john henryism, and depression among african americans.
        Journal of Black Psychology. 2016; 42: 221-243
        • Hudson D.L.
        • Puterman E.
        • Bibbins-Domingo K.
        • Matthews K.A.
        • Adler N.E.
        Race, life course socioeconomic position, racial discrimination, depressive symptoms and self-rated health.
        Social Science & Medicine. 2013; 97: 7-14
        • Joinson C.
        • Kounali D.
        • Lewis G.
        Family socioeconomic position in early life and onset of depressive symptoms and depression: A prospective cohort study.
        Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 2017; 52: 95-103
        • Kwon E.
        • Kim B.
        • Lee H.
        • Park S.
        Heterogeneous trajectories of depressive symptoms in late middle age: Critical period, accumulation, and social mobility life course perspectives.
        Journal of Aging and Health. 2018; 30: 1011-1041
        • McKnight-Eily L.R.
        • Presley-Cantrell L.
        • Elam-Evans L.D.
        • Chapman D.P.
        • Kaslow N.J.
        • Perry G.S.
        Prevalence and correlates of current depressive symptomatology and lifetime diagnosis of depression in Black women.
        Women’s Health Issues. 2009; 19: 243-252
        • Miller G.E.
        • Chen E.
        • Yu T.
        • Brody G.H.
        Youth who achieve upward socioeconomic mobility display lower psychological distress but higher metabolic syndrome rates as adults: Prospective evidence from add health and MIDUS.
        Journal of the American Heart Association. 2020; 9: e015698
        • Nagamine Y.
        • Fujiwara T.
        • Tani Y.
        • Murayama H.
        • Tabuchi T.
        • Kondo K.
        • Kawachi I.
        Gender difference in the association between subjective socioeconomic mobility across life course and mortality at older ages: results from the JAGES longitudinal study.
        Journal of Epidemiology. 2020; 30: 497-502
        • National Institute of Mental Health
        Major depression.
        (Available:)
        www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/major-depression.shtml
        Date: 2019
        Date accessed: October 20, 2020
        • Osler M.
        • Bruunsgaard H.
        • Lykke Mortensen E.
        Lifetime socio-economic position and depression: An analysis of the influence of cognitive function, behaviour and inflammatory markers.
        European Journal of Public Health. 2015; 25: 1065-1069
        • Qin W.
        • Nguyen A.W.
        • Mouzon D.M.
        • Hamler T.C.
        • Wang F.
        Social support, everyday discrimination, and depressive symptoms among older African Americans: A longitudinal study.
        Innovation in Aging. 2020; 4: igaa032
        • Ruiz M.
        • Hu Y.
        • Martikainen P.
        • Bobak M.
        Life course socioeconomic position and incidence of mid-late life depression in China and England: A comparative analysis of CHARLS and ELSA.
        Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 2019; 73: 817-824
        • Torres E.
        Psychometric properties of the center for epidemiologic studies depression scale in African American and Black Caribbean US adults.
        Issues in Mental Health Nursing. 2012; 33: 687-696
        • World Health Organization (WHO)
        Depression.
        (Available:)

      Biography

      Opal P. Patel, is a doctoral student in the Department of Epidemiology at the University of North Carolina in the Gillings School of Global Public Health with research interests in the area of environmental epidemiology.

      Biography

      Dr. Arbor Quist, is an environmental epidemiologist interested in community-driven research that addresses climate and environmental injustice. Arbor recently completed her PhD in epidemiology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and is now a Postdoctoral Fellow in Environmental Justice & Community-Driven Epidemiology at the University of Southern California.

      Biography

      Dr. Chantel L. Martin, is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Epidemiology at the University of North Carolina in the Gillings School of Global Public Health. Her research seeks to uncover social and biological mechanisms of health disparities across the life course.

      Biography

      Dr. Ganesa Wegienka is a Senior Scientist and Epidemiologist in the Department of Public Health Sciences at the Henry Ford Health System in Detroit, MI. Dr. Wegienka's research interests include causes of pediatric allergic diseases such as allergy and asthma, as well as the racial disparities observed in their occurrence. She also has extensive research in women's health.

      Biography

      Dr. Donna D. Baird, is an Intramural Scientist, Epidemiologist, and head of the Women's Health Group in the Epidemiology Branch at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. She has extensive experience in studies of reproductive hormones, fertility and early pregnancy, and the natural history of uterine fibroids; methodological expert in longitudinal data analysis, analysis of bias in reproductive outcomes, and research design in reproductive epidemiology.

      Biography

      Dr. Lauren Wise, is a Professor in the Department of Epidemiology at Boston University School of Public Health. Her research involves the study of benign gynecologic conditions, delayed conception, and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

      Biography

      Dr. Anissa I. Vines, is an Associate Professor in the Department of Epidemiology in the Gillings School of Global Public Health at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Her research involves the study of the psychosocial determinants of health and their influence on outcomes such as uterine fibroids, cancer disparities, and cardiometabolic conditions. Dr. Vines is particularly interested in stressors across the life course, including racism.