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A Generation of Childless Women: Lessons from the United States

      Abstract

      Background

      Childlessness is a major public health concern in the United States, particularly among educated adults. Among women who turned 45 in 2006, one fifth had no children. We examine the likelihood that a childless woman wants a baby sometime in the future and its determinants.

      Methods

      From 2006 to 2010, 5,410 in-person interview surveys were conducted with childless women as part of the National Survey of Family Growth. Age-specific likelihoods of wanting a baby were compared with likelihoods of having a baby before age 45. Female respondents were 1) born after 1960, 2) age 15 to 44, 3) childless (never given birth to a live infant), and 4) not pregnant at time of interview.

      Findings

      Most childless women at any age want a baby sometime in the future. By age 32, fewer than half the childless women who want a baby will have one. At age 39, the majority of childless women (73%) still want a baby someday, but only 7% will have one. By age 45, more than 1 in 10 women will be childless, but still want to have a baby.

      Conclusions

      Although attitudes toward childlessness have become more positive over time, our findings suggest that the United States is experiencing a high prevalence of childless women who want a baby. Clinicians may consider counseling young women about age-related declines in fertility and the costs and success rates of assisted reproductive echnologies often required for women with advanced maternal age to better inform their career, family, and lifestyle decisions.
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      Biography

      Benjamin M. Craig, PhD, is an Associate Member at Moffitt Cancer Center and an Associate Professor at University of South Florida. He is an economist dedicated to improving the lives of cancer patients by informing medical decision making and health policy.

      Biography

      Kristine A. Donovan, PhD, MBA, is an Assistant Member at Moffitt Cancer Center. Her research focuses on the etiology and management of side effects of cancer treatment and the identification of appropriate interventions to alleviate symptoms and improve quality of life in survivorship.

      Biography

      Liana Fraenkel, MD, MPH, is an Associate Professor of Medicine (Rheumatology and Internal Medicine) at Yale School of Medicine. Her research interest is in developing robust and practical methods to elicit patient treatment preferences and to improve medical decision-making.

      Biography

      Verity Watson, PhD, is a Senior Research Fellow at University of Aberdeen's Health Economics Research Unit. Her research interests include the valuation of non-market goods and experimental economics. In particular, how individuals complete hypothetical choice tasks.

      Biography

      Sarah Hawley, PhD, MPH, is an Associate Professor at the University of Michigan and a Research Investigator at Ann Arbor VAMC Center for Practice Management and Outcomes Research. Her research focuses on understanding and improving decision-making related to cancer prevention and control services.

      Biography

      Gwendolyn P. Quinn, PhD, is a Senior Member at Moffitt Cancer Center and a Biomedical Ethics Specialist at University of South Florida. Her research concentrates on assessing the behavioral determinants of consumer decisions and choices about health.