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Physicians and Abortion: Provision, Political Participation and Conflicts on the Ground—The Cases of Brazil and Poland

      Abstract

      Background

      Two qualitative studies have been conducted between 2002 and 2009 in Poland and Brazil, two different geopolitical settings in which the Catholic Church has had a significant political influence and where abortion is highly restricted. In both countries, struggles for abortion rights have played an important role in challenging the current restrictive policies and bringing attention to the plight of women unable to obtain abortions. This article examines the political role that physicians play in these contestations, drawing on some findings of two larger qualitative studies.

      Methods

      In Poland semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 physicians in Warsaw and Krakow and with 55 women aged 18 to 45 in Gdańsk. In Brazil questionnaires were administered and semi-structured interviews conducted with 22 obstetrician-gynecologists and 23 health professionals in two public maternity hospitals in Salvador da Bahia.

      Findings

      This article argues that gynecologists' perspectives and practices not only reflect or heed religious precepts on reproductive rights, but are also deeply influenced by inadequate medical training and by the fear of being prosecuted or stigmatized, especially in Brazil. The political non-engagement of physicians in Poland is driven by the lack of abortion rights discourse in the public arena, poor links with women's rights groups, and the lack of political unity within the medical community.

      Conclusions

      Comparisons between Brazil and Poland ultimately suggest that strong liaisons between physicians and the feminist movement influence physicians' attitudes and political engagement and are most promising in abortion rights advocacy efforts.
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      Biography

      Silvia De Zordo, PhD, is a Marie Curie Fellow and a Visiting Researcher at Goldsmiths College, University of London. Her current research examines gynecologists' experiences and attitudes towards abortion and conscientious objection in Italy and in the UK.

      Biography

      Joanna Mishtal, PhD, is an Assistant Professor of Anthropology at the University of Central Florida. Her current research, situated in Ireland and at the European Union, examines the role of conscience-based objection in the provision of reproductive health services.