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Maternal Weight after Childbirth versus Aging-Related Weight Changes

Published:January 14, 2017DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.whi.2016.12.001

      Abstract

      Background

      Pregnancy weight gain is believed to contribute to female overweight and obesity. However, most studies do not account for the changes in body weight expected to occur as women age. We examined the long-term weight trajectory of childbearing women relative to weight progression that could be expected in the absence of pregnancy.

      Methods

      From the hospital records of 32,187 women with two births in Wisconsin during 2006 to 2013, we extracted the maternal weight at pregravid, delivery, and subsequent pregravid. We predicted the corresponding aging-progressed weights using a weight-for-age equation adjusted for sociodemographic variables. Nonparametric mixed effects models estimated the average maternal weight trajectory and the corresponding aging-related progression through 5 years after birth.

      Results

      The estimated aging-related progression predicted a gradual annual weight increase of 1.94 pounds (95% confidence interval 1.90–1.98), from 152.79 pounds at pregravid to 163.76 pounds by 5 years after birth. Actual maternal weight followed a sinusoidal pattern: increasing during gestation, decreasing during the first postbirth year, converging with the aging-related progression during the second postbirth year, and then increasing at 2.89 pounds (95% confidence interval 2.23–3.55) annually and diverging upward from the aging-related progression to 168.03 pounds by 5 years after birth.

      Conclusion

      Pregnancy weight gain did not contribute to the aging-related trend, but lifestyle changes of parenthood may later exacerbate the long-term trend.
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      Biography

      Olga Yakusheva, PhD, is an Associate Professor at the School of Nursing and the School of Public Health, University of Michigan. Her research interests include health economics, economics of obesity, and economics of fertility.

      Biography

      Kandice Kapinos, PhD, is an Economist at the RAND Corporation. Her research interests include economic policy, health economics, obesity, and preventive health care.

      Biography

      Marianne Weiss, DNSC, RN, is a Professor at the College of Nursing, Marquette University. Her research interests include perinatal health care, with an emphasis on postpartum continuum of care and postpartum weight management.